Toroids are appearing in structural applications due to their aesthetic & structural benefits. Examples include the Dubai & Osaka airport terminals, and London Museum. However the structural efficiencies of this shape are also being applied by Triodetic in long-span ORE STOCKPILE ENCLOSURES for mining companies. Toroid shapes are simply described as a double curved surface that resembles part of a tyre or inner-tube.

The toroid shape has curvature in two planes & therefore can be designed as a shell. Space Frame designs This results in less structure mass than linear designs and by controlling the angle of the structure wall at its base, footing reactions can be minimized. Overall structure curvature & member sizes must be designed to resist buckling & to restrain surface discontinuities, however these structures can be very economical & fast to construct.

Toriods - Stockpile covers for mines
Toriods - Stockpile Storage
Stockpile Covers